Romans 15:10 repeats a line from Deuteronomy 32:43. That line is near the end of the song that God told Moses to teach to Israelís people (Deuteronomy 31:19-22).
That song is a sad song. Its subject is the people in Israel who did not want to be loyal to God. The song records the great kindness that God had shown to their nation. It describes how some of Israel's people would choose to serve false gods and to follow evil behaviour. We can compare this with Paulís reference to the same people (10:19-21), in which he repeats other words from the song (Deuteronomy 32:21).
In the song, the people become so evil that God wants to destroy their nation completely. However, God declares that, for his own honour, he would not do that (Deuteronomy 32:26-27). Instead, he would permit them to suffer great troubles, and their enemies would attack them fiercely.
Through all their troubles, God is waiting for the time when his people will no longer depend upon themselves (Deuteronomy 32:36). Then, at last, they will be ready to trust him, and God will act powerfully on their behalf (compare Zechariah 12:7 to 13:1). That is the time when God will save the whole of Israel (11:25-27).
So, the song urges the inhabitants of both earth and heaven to praise God with great joy. Of course, the nations or Gentiles of Romans 15:10 are not the enemies who hate Israel; God is punishing those enemies (Deuteronomy 32:42). Rather, the joy is for the people from every nation who themselves trust in Israelís God. They have great joy because Israelís people are returning to the true God. So, that event brings happiness to the whole world, as Isaiah 55:12 describes in a word-picture (11:12).
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© 2018, Keith Simons.